Thesis made under the supervision of Professor Séraphin Alava :

Can positive education contribute effectively to the prevention of violent extremisms and radicalizations?

Integrative socio-clinical diagnosis of ciolent radicalizations and correlation of scientifically validated resources in positive education to cope with them.

Simplified plan 

Introduction : Implication of the researcher, problematization and research hypotheses.

I The theorical corpus of reference.

1 a Humanist Psychology and universal needs.

1 b Positive Psychology.

1 c  Positive Education.

2 a A macro and mezzo analysis of the processes of extremism and radicalization according to  Bronfenbrenner ecological model.

2 b Socio-clinical analyses and antropological hypotheses.

2 c An Integrative Model Explaining Extremism and Radicalization Processes: Belanger and All’s 3N Model.

3 A reversibility model ?

3 a A curative approach with psychocriminology.

3 b A resilient approach with Traumatic Post-Traumatic Growth.

3 c A preventive approach: with the biopsychosociocultural model of Jean Guillot’s personal and social development.

II . A field of research: psychology and positive education to support the reversibility of radicalization processes

III Specific contribution of spiritual education.

The research presented here discusses positive education as a possible way to more effectively prevent the phenomena of extremism and violent radicalization that have affected a surprising number of adolescents and young adults since the beginning of the 21st century. It consists of three parts. The introduction of the thesis situates the personal position of the researcher and the issues posed by the research subject. The first part, referred to as a theoretical corpus of reference, covers the various theoretical concepts derived from humanistic and positive psychology and the positive education on which the thesis is based (I1). It also presents its negative in a way: an integrative model of processes of extremism and radicalization based on a dual identity (dual passions[1] and dual motivations[2]) and an existential crisis (I2). We will leave to illustrate it with an interdisciplinary and systemic method (from macro to micro) then we will rely on the analysis of several psycho-social and clinical investigations including a complete survey with a quantitative and qualitative analysis[3].

The data will then lead us to several explanatory hypotheses that converge towards an integrative model: the 3Ns (Needs, Networks, Narratives). Finally, the intersection of the two integrative theories – that of psychology and positive education on the one hand and that of processes of extremism and radicalization on the other hand, will lead us to make theoretical and methodological propositions at the level of the concept of reversibility of identity constructions / negative commitments by positive identities / commitments (I3).

[1] Vallerand R. (2015) : « The Psychology of Passion: A Dualistic Model », Edition Oxford.

[2] Favre D. et C. ( ) : « un modèle complexe des motivations humaines : Application à

l’éclairage de la crise d’adolescence », Revue de Psychologie de la Motivation n°16, 27-42, 1993.

[3]Bouzar, D., (2018), Français radicalisés, l’enquête, Paris,Éditions de l’Atelier.

The second part will list all the resources scientifically proven and available to date in psychology and positive education to feed the reversibility models proposed at the end of part I. And this in three directions or gradation: curative, resilient treatment, preventive. Let us note here that one of the Limits of this thesis resides in its innovative strength: it will not allow to directly test the resources of reversibility on a dedicated and specific sample of young radicalized. This could be the subject of a postdoctoral work and projects are already being studied in this sense within a country ready to experiment with these resources: Morocco. Finally, Part III is both more specific and prospective because it will focus on how education can meet certain specific needs identified in the processes of extremism and religious radicalization: meaning and transcendence, the need to cultivate an intelligence and a spiritual dimension in one’s existence. This will lead us to conclude the entire thesis to make assumptions about what can bring an education to wisdom and spirituality facing the existential and civilizational stakes of the twenty-first century.

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